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Predictive performance of pharmacokinetic methods for phenytoin dosing: a multi-center evaluation in patients with epilepsyCited by: 8. A large clinical study, designed to investigate the induction of theophylline metabolism by phenytoin, provided the opportunity to test a previously proposed method for estimating dose requirements of phenytoin.
This method involves prediction of the oral maintenance dosage from data obtained following the administration of an intravenous loading dose. In 30 subjects, trough plasma Cited by: A Bayesian prediction method, applicable to any drug, is available.
It appropriately combines all types of information. In this paper, we compare the Bayesian method as applied to phenytoin to two other prediction methods (and a baseline, nonfeedback one).
Actual doses are compared to predictions in 49 by: COMPUTERS AND BIOMEDICAL RESEA () A Method for Prediction of Phenytoin Levels in the Acute Clinical Evaluation of kinetic prediction models for phenytoin dosage adjustment. book RICHARD D. SCHEYER AND RICHARD H. MATTSON Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Neurology Service, West Haven, Connecticut ; and Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, New Haven, Connecticut Received Janu Phenytoin (PHT) administration is complicated by saturation kinetics Cited by: 4.
usually involves multiple anti-epileptic drug therapy, with very low phenytoin concentrations beyond the therapeutic range. In the present study on rabbits using phenytoin as probe, we examined the impact of non-linear kinetic model on individual dose determination for specified therapeutic drug.
Therefore, dosage adjustment based on GFR may not always be appropriate and a re-evaluation of markers of renal function may be required. Phenytoin may be given intravenously to patients who cannot receive the drug orally or who require rapid onset of drug effect.
Phenytoin distributes into the body tissues, including the brain, within 30 to 60 minutes after reaching the systemic circulation. The drug is highly bound to both plasma proteins (mostly albumin) and to tissue components. CRCL > 25 ml/min CRCL 10 - 25 ml/min CRCL Phenytoin cumulation kinetics.
Clin Pharmacol Ther. Oct;26 (4) 2. Bachmann KA, Belloto RJ Jr. Differential kinetics of phenytoin in elderly patients.
drug concentration in the blood or plasma, urine, saliva, and other easily sampled ﬂuids (Figure ). Kinetic homogeneity describes the predictable relationship between plasma drug concentration and concentration at the receptor site where a given drug produces its thera-peutic effect (Figure ).
Changes in the plasma drug. By simplifying the equation, a coefficient of '' was originally suggested to calculate a corrected phenytoin level in patients without significant comorbidities.
7 In patients with renal dysfunction or end-stage renal disease, a coefficient of '' was considered to be more appropriate due to reduced protein binding secondary to uremia, although this method has now been shown to poorly correlated with free phenytoin levels.
Pharmacokinetic models Pharmacokinetic models are hypothetical structures that are used to describe the fate of a drug in a biological system following its administration.
One-compartment model Following drug administration, the body is depicted as a kinetically homo-geneous unit (see Figure ).
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This assumes that the drug achieves instant-File Size: KB. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate age and anthropometric parameters as predictors for dose adjustment of CyA; and the secondary aim was to compare the usefulness of the concentration at predose (C 0) and 2-hour postdose (C 2) monitoring.
An open-label, non-randomized, retrospective study was performed in 81 renal transplant patients in Japan during Cited by: 3. Access Recirculation Kt/V from PRU Kt/V Daugirdas 6-Month Mortality on HD Estimate 6 month mortality on dialysis using the Cohen model Home HD Candidacy (MATCH-D) Assess candidacy for home hemodialysis Percent Reduction of Urea Phenytoin Adjustment in Renal Failure 3-Month Mortality in Incident Elderly ESRD Patients Estimate the risk of early.
Summary To dose the anticonvulsant phenytoin (PHT) in a clinical situation is difficult because of the non‐linear metabolism of the drug. Therefore many techniques have been advocated to aid dosage adjustments based on a single‐point PHT concentration determined at steady‐state (ss).
We retrospectively investigated six methods in a population of out‐patients treated with PHT. The. Epileptic children were given phenytoin (DPH) in loading (four doses of to mg/kg/dose given 8‐hourly and then 6 mg/kg/day) or conventional (5 to 9 mg/kg/day) doses.
Plasma levels of DPH and its main metabolite (p‐OH‐DPH) were measured by a mass fragmentographic by: The therapeutic range of the free phenytoin serum concentration is about 10% of that of the total phenytoin serum concentration and varies from to µmol/L ( - mg/L).
7, 8 Only a few specialized laboratories offer to analyze the free phenytoin concentration because it is a more expensive and time-consuming by: phenytoin to human subjects, using the data available in the study published by Melikian et al.
. The development of mathematical models of the pharmacokinetic behavior of phenytoin  in human subjects was performed in the following successive steps : In the first step of the model development process. This change in emphasis has been largely brought about by the development of appropriate computer software (NONMEM: Nonlinear Mixed Effects Model) and its successful application to the retrospective analysis of clinical data of a number of commonly used drugs, e.g.
digoxin, phenytoin, gentamicin, procainamide, mexiletine and lignocaine (lidocaine).Cited by: Newly Started Patient on Phenytoin Suspected Non- compliance/ Breakthrough Seizures After Dose Adjustment Suspected Phenytoin Toxicity Based on ROA of loading dose IV: one hour after the dose ORAL: 24Nhrs after the last dose Levels can be drawn at the point of admission, regardless of the patient’s normal dosing time.
The solubility of sodium phenytoin in binary mixtures of ethanol +water at, and K was measured. The solubility was increased by addition of ethanol, reached a maximum. The evidence used to judge the adequacy of a model for decision-making purposes comes from a variety of sources.
They include studies that compare model results with known test cases or observations, comments from the peer review process, and the list of a model’s major assumptions. Box lists those and other elements of model evaluation. Kinetic model for gentamicin dosing with the use of individual patient parameters.
Method for the rapid estimation of the total body drug clearance and adjustment of dosage regimens in patients during a constant-rate intravenous infusion. J Pharmacokinet Biopharm Individualizing phenytoin dosage regimens using a programmable Author: Michael E.
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Burton. App p'kinetic CONTENTS Introduction Application Design of dosage regimen Dose size Dosing frequency Prediction and explanation of drug food and drug- drug interaction Individualization Dosing of drug in neonates, children, infants and elderly.
Dosing of drug in various disease state Monitoring drug therapy. Introduction. Women frequently take a variety of medications during pregnancy, including prescription, over-the-counter (OTC), and herbal agents [1,2].During the last three decades the average number of medications (prescription and nonprescription) used per woman in North America during the first trimester increased by 60% from to .More recently, from toover 80% of women Cited by: To establish a population pharmacokinetics (PPK) model for lamotrigine (LTG) in Chinese children with epilepsy in order to formulate an individualized dosage guideline.
LTG steady-state plasma Cited by: Purpose Cisplatin-associated acute kidney injury (C-AKI) is common. We sought to develop and validate a predictive model for C-AKI after the first course of cisplatin.
Methods Clinical and demographic data were collected on patients who received cisplatin between and at two cancer centers. C-AKI was defined as a mg/dL rise in serum creatinine within 14 days of receiving cisplatin Cited by: To select a drug model, click on the drug selection box.
You may then select a drug model by either: Clicking the scroll bar to scroll through the list of available drugs. Pressing the up or down arrow keys to scroll through the list. Typing in a drug name. The program will match the available drug models with what you type, as you type it.
Evaluation of an Enzyme Immunochromatography Method for Carbamazepine: A Comparison with Enzyme-Multiplied Immunoassay Technique, Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay, and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.
ACC/AHA CV Risk Calculator () Estimate year risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease Revised Cardiac Risk Index (Lee Criteria) Rapid pre-op assessment using the Revi. Issues in Pharmacology, Pharmacy, Drug Research, and Drug Innovation: Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Pharmacology, Pharmacy, Drug Research, and Drug Innovation.
The editors have built Issues in Pharmacology, Pharmacy, Drug Research, and Drug Innovation: Edition on the vast information 1/5(1). Try out a new beta version of this vancomycin calculator - now with support for Bayesian modeling.
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Description evaluation of kinetic prediction models for phenytoin dosage adjustment. EPUB
This compilation updates and expands a previous evaluation of kinetic data on elementary, homogeneous, gas phase reactions of neutral species involved in combustion systems [J. Phys. Chem. Ref. D ()].
The work has been carried out under the auspices of the European Community Energy Research and Development Program. Data sheets are presented for Cited by: Understanding the behavior and properties of molecules assembled in thin layers requires knowledge of their crystalline packing.
The drug phenytoin (5,5-diphenylhydantoin) is one of the compounds that can be grown as a surface induced polymorph. By using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, the monoclinic unit cell of the new form II can be determined, but, due to crystal size and the low Author: Doris E.
Braun, Arianna Rivalta, Andrea Giunchi, Natalia Bedoya-Martinez, Benedikt Schrode, Benedikt.
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